IAS,CDS,NDA AND STATE PSC SOLVED PAPERS WITH EXPLANATIONS.


If you ask UPSC toppers for an advice to crack the exam.Their first advice will be 'GO THROUGH QUESTION PAPERS OF LAST 15  YEARS' but when you go through these papers,you will find that 'NOT A SINGLE QUESTION HAS BEEN REPEATED BY UPSC'.Then what is the wisdom behind this advice.
The secret behind this great advice is
1..The simple fact that 60-70% questions that will be asked by UPSC this year are related to questions asked over the previous years.
2..By going through previous year papers you will get the idea about the standard of questions being asked in the exam.
3..As there is no prescribed syllabus for general studies in top level exams so previous year papers are best source to know the importance of any topic from examination point of view.
4..One of the best ways to judge your preparation for forthcoming exams is to go through previous year papers and try to solve them on your own.
We at www.topexamguide.com are here to provide you topic wise analysis and solution of previous year general studies papers of IAS,CDS,NDA AND STATE CIVIL SERVICE for preliminary exam.
All these solutions are supported by detailed explanations thus leaving no room for confusion.
Lets attempt to solve previous year papers segment wise begining with 
MODERN INDIAN HISTORY
Because MODERN INDIAN HISTORY forms a core area of general studies of IAS,CDS,NDA AND STATE CIVIL SERVICE EXAMS.
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Lets begin now.
COMING OF EUROPEANS
1).With reference to Pondicherry(now Puducherry) consider the following[IAS 2010]
1.The first European power to occupy Pondicherry were Portuguese.
2.The second European power to occupy Pondicherry were French.
3.The English never occupied Pondicherry.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct.
(a) Only 1                                    
(b) 2 and 3
(c) Only 3                                    
 (d)1,2 and 3
Answer:- (a)
Explanation:-Portuguese were first European to set up a factory in the region during 16th century.They were followed by Danes and Dutch.
In 1674 French East India Company set up  trading centre at Pondicherry.British captured Pondicherry on 16th January 1761 from French but by the Treaty of Paris(1763) Pondicherry was returned to French and remained under them until 1954.
2) During the time of which Mughal Emperor did the English East India Company established its first factory at Surat.[IAS 2008]
Akbar                        
(b)Jahangir
(c)Shahjahan                  
(d)Aurangzeb
Answer:-(b)
Explanation:-Captain Hawkins(a representative of East India Company)arrived at Jahangir’s court in 1609 to seek permission to open a factory at Surat.Jahangir was  initially hesitant to grant permission due to Portuguese pressure.But after the defeat of Portuguese  by English at Swally(near Surat) in 1612.A Farman(order) was issued by Jahangir permitting the English to open a factory at Surat(1613).
In 1615, Sir Thomas Roe (an ambassador of King James of England)came to Jahangir’s court and sought permission to open factories at different parts of the empire.
3).Who Among the following Europeans were the last to come to pre independent India as Traders ?[IAS 2007]
( a). Dutch                                 
 ( b). English  
(c). French                                   
( d). Portuguese  
Answer:- (c)
Explanation:- The Europeans came to pre independent India in following chronological order.
(a).Portuguese 1498 (First factory was established at Cochin in 1503)
(b) English 1600 (First factory was established at Surat in 1613)
(c) Dutch 1602(First factory was established at Masulipatam in 1605)
(d)French 1664(First factory was established at Surat in 1668)
4) Which one the following was the first Fort constructed by the British in India.[IAS 2007]
(a)Fort William                           
(b) Fort St.George
(c)Fort St.David                          (d)Fort St.Angelo
Answer:- (b)
Explanation:-
1.Fort William was build in 1700 under the supervision of Charlis Eye.
2.Fort Saint George the first fort constructed by British  in India.It was build in 1644 at the coastal city of Chennie.
3.Fort Saint David was a British fort near Cuddalore(a hundred miles South of Chennai) on the Coromandel Coast.Previously it was a Maratha Property but was sold by Maratha to the British in 1690.
4.Fort Angelo(also known as  Kannur Fort or Kannur Kota)  is a fort facing Arabian sea, 3 km from Kannur(Kerala).It was built in 1505 by Francisco De Almeida(the first Portuguese viceroy in India)
5)Which one of the following is the correct statement?[IAS 2005]
 (a) The modern Kochi was a Dutch colony till India's Independence 
(b) The Dutch defeated the Portuguese and built Fort Williams in the modern Kochi 
(c) The modern Kochi was first a Dutch colony before the Portuguese took over from them.
(d) The modern Kochi never became a part of the British colony.
Answer:- (b)
Explanation:-Kochi was the scene of first European settlement in India.Kochi was ruled by Portugal from 1503 to 1663.
In 1663 Dutch captured the Kochi and built Fort williams (1663) there.Dutch ruled the Kochi from 1663 to 1773.
From Dutch Kochi was taken by rular of Mysore.In 1814 Kochi came under the British rule and remained under British control till 1947.
6).Which one of the following is the correct chronological order of the battles fought in India in the 18th Century?[IAS 2005]
 (a) Battle of Wandiwash - Battle of Buxar - Battle of Ambur - Battle of Plassey.
 (b) Battle of Ambur - Battle of Plassey - Battle of Wandiwash - Battle of Buxar.
 (c) Battle of Wandiwash - Battle of Plassey - Battle of Ambur - Battle of Buxar. 
(d) Battle of Ambur - Battle of Buxar - Battle of Wandiwash - Battle of Plassey.
Answer:- (b)
Explanation:- The correct chronological order of these battles is as under.
1.Battle of Amber (1749)-French,Muzzafar jung,Chanda Sahib vs Anwardin of Carnatic
2.Battle of Plassey(1757)-Siraj ud dullah vs English.
3.Battle of Wandiwash(1760)-French vs English.
4.Battle of Buxar(1764)-Mir Jaffar,Shah Alam II,Shahidullah vs English.
7). With reference to the entry of European powers into India, which one of the following statements is not correct [IAS 2003] 
(a) The Portuguese captured Goa in 1499 
(b) The English opened their first factory in South India at Masulipatam 
(c) In Eastern India, the English Company opened its first factory in Orissa in 1633 
(d) Under the leadership of Dupleix, the French occupied Madras in 1746.
Answer:- (a)
Explanation:-Portuguese captured Goa in 1510 under the governorship of Alfonso de Albuquerque.
8). In India, among the following locations, the Dutch established their earliest factory at [IAS 2003]
(a) Surat                                  
(b) Pulicat 
(c) Cochin                               
(d) Cassimbazar.
Answer:- (b)
Explanation:-Dutch built their earliest factories in India as per following chronological order.
Masulipatnam (1605),Pulicat(1610),Surat(1616),Cassimbazar(1651),Cochin(1663).
9)Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched? [IAS 1999]
(a)Jahangir --William Hawkins           
 (b)Akbar-- Sir Thomas Roe
 (c)Shahjahan –Tavernier                   
 (d)Aurangzeb-- Manucci .
Answer:- (b)
Explanation:-
1.William Hawkins-(representative of East India Company) arrived at Jahangir’s court in 1609 to seek permission to open a factory at Surat.
2.Sir Thomas Roe- An ambassador of  King James I  of England came to Jahangir’s court in 1615 to seek emperor’s permission to trade and erect factories in different parts of India.
3.Jean-Baptiste Tavernier-was a 17th century French merchant and traveller.He visited court of Mugal emperor Shah Jahan during his visit to India in 1638-43.
4.Niccolao Manucci-was an Italian writer and traveller.He worked in the Mughal court during the reign of Aurangzeb.He is famous for his book “Storia do Mogor”.It's an important account of later reign of Shahjahan and reign of Aurangzeb. 
10)  Who among the following was the first European to initiate the policy of taking part in the quarrels of Indian prince with a view to acquire territories? [IAS1996]
(a)Clive                                     (b)Dupleix 
(c)Alberque                                (d)Warren Hastings.
Answer:- (b)
Explanation:-Joseph Francois Dupleix was the Governor General of French India from 14 January 1742 to 15 October 1754.His ambition was to acquire for France vast territories in India and for this purpose he entered into relations with the native Princes and initiated the policy of  taking part in quarrels of Indian princes.
11)Vasco de Gama reached Malabar coast of Calicut in[OPSC 2011]
(a)1492                                          
(b) 1495
(c)1497                                         (d)1498
Answer:- (d)
Explanation:- Vasco de Gama was a Portuguese explorer.He was first European to reach India by sea through Cape of Good Hope.He reached the port of Calicut on 20 May 1498 and was received by  the ruler of Calicut(known by the title of  Zamorin).
12)Who among the following Europeans were the first to come to India and leave India last. [TNPSC 2011]
(a)The Portuguese.                          (b)The French. 
(c)The English.                                 (d)The Dutch.
Answer:- (a)
Explanation:- Chronology of coming and leaving of  European powers in India is as under.
1.Portuguese-came in 1498 and left in 1961(Came first and left last).
 2.The French-Came in 1664 and left in 1760.
3.The English-came to India in 1600 and left on 15 August 1947.
4.The Dutch-came to India in 1602 and left in 1825.
13)Match the items in the List I with the List II and select the answer from the codes given below.[Himachal PSC 2010]
   List I                                List II
Dutch                              1.Goa
English                            2.Pulicat
Portuguese                      3.Bugli
French                             4.Chinsurah
            A  B   C  D
(a)      3    4    1   2
(b)      1    3    2   4
(c)       2   1    4    3
(d)      2    3    1    4  
Answer:- (d)
Explanation:- 
1.Pulicat (Tamil Nadu) was important seat of Dutch Republic’s  settlement in India.Pulicat was official headquarter of Dutch from 1616 to 1690.
2.In 1651 English got permission to trade in Hugli in Bengal and thus Hugli became one of the main centres of English company.
3.Goa was captured by Portuguese in 1510 and became the nucleus of Portuguese power in India till 1961.
4.In 1751 a battle was fought between French and English at Chinsura (Bengal).Its also known as battle of Badera.
14).The French East India Company was formed in-[MPPSC 2010]
 (a) 1664 AD                              
(b) 1660 AD
 (c) 1656 AD
(d) 1680 AD 
Answer:- (a)
Explanation:-French East India was formed in 1664.French were the last Europeans to come to India.
 15).La Bourdonnais was the Governor of-[MPPSC 2010]
 (a) Madras                                    
(b) Pondicherry 
(c) Mauritius                                
(d) None of these  
Answer:- (c)
Explanation:-La Bourdonnais was a French naval officer and administrator,in the service of French East India Company.He was appointed as governor of Isle de France (now Mauritius) in 1735.
16)The battle of Wandiwash was fought between- [MPPSC 2010]
(a) English and the French                    
 (b) English and the Marathas
 (c) English and the Nawab of Carnatic 
(d) English and Hyder Ali 
Answer:- (a)
Explanation:- Battle of Wandiwash (a decisive battle of third Carnatic war) was fought between English and French in 1760.English  forces were lead by Sir Eyre Coote and French forces were under Comte de Lally.Henceforth this battle French lived under the British protection. 
 17). At the battle of Biddera the English crushed the power of-[MPPSC 2010]
 (a) French                                   
(b) Dutch
(c) Portuguese                             
(d) Danes
Answer:- (b)
Explanation:- Battle of Biddera(25 November 1759) was fought between Dutch and English.After victory at Chandernagore,English forces under the command of Forde moved to confront the forces landed by Dutch fleet.Colonel Forde met these forces at Biddera(a place between Chranagore and Chinura) and gained a decisive victory over Dutch.
18) Which English governor of East India Company in India was expelled   by Aurangzeb[MPPSC 2008]
(a)Aungier                                      (b)Sir John Child
(c)Sir John Gayer                         (d)Sir Nicholas Waite
Answer:- (b)
Explanation:-Sir John Child was a Governor of Bombay and de facto (though not officially) the first governor general of British settlements in India.
In 1689, a war broke out between the English and  Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.In this war British were expelled by Aurangzeb.In 1690 company sent envoys to Aurangzeb to plead for prodon.Company paid a large indimity and promised better behaviour in future and subsequently  re-established  Bombay and set up a new base in Calcutta.
19)Which one of the following Mughal Emperor gave an important Farman to the English of facilitating their trade in india.[WB PSC 2007]
(a)Bahadur Shah I                             (b)FarrukhSiyar
(c)Shah Alam II                                 (d)Bahadur Shah II
Answer:- (b)
Explaination:- In 1717  East India Company had secured a valuable privilege under a royal Farman by the Mughal Emperor Farrukh Siyar,which had granted the company the freedom to export and import their goods in Bengal without paying taxes and the right to issue passes(Dastaks) for movement of such goods.It gave an undue advantage to the British and fecilitated their trade in India.
20) Who were the first Europeans to set up sea trade centres in India.[UK PSC (P) 2005]
(a)The English                     
(b)The French
(c)The Portuguese                
(d)The Dutch
Answer:- (c)
Explanation:-Portuguese came to India in 1498 and became the first Europeans to have sea trade with India.

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